Symptoms of disease vary depending on how the disease was contracted, but symptoms usually occur within seven days. Cutaneous Most (about 95%) anthrax infections occur when the bacterium enters a cut or abrasion on the skin, such as when handling contaminated wool, hides, leather or hair products (especially goat hair) of infected animals. Skin infection begins as a raised itchy bump that resembles an insect bite but within one to two days develops into a vesicle and then a painless ulcer, usually 1 - 3 centimeters. In diameter, with a characteristic black necrotic (dying) area in the center. Lymph glands in the adjacent area may swell. About 20% of untreated cases of cutaneous anthrax will result in death. Deaths are rare with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Inhalation Initial symptoms may resemble a common cold. After several days, the symptoms may progress to severe breathing problems and shock. Inhalation anthrax is usually fatal. Intestinal The intestinal disease form of anthrax may follow the consumption of contaminated meat and is characterized by an acute inflammation of the intestinal tract. Initial signs of nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever are followed by abdominal pain, vomiting of blood, and severe diarrhea. Intestinal anthrax results in death in 25 - 60% of cases.
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The anthrax vaccine is manufactured and distributed by the BioPort Corporation in Lansing, Michigan. The vaccine is a cell-free filtrate vaccine, which means it contains no dead or live bacteria in the preparation. The final product contains no more than 2.4 milligrams of aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. Anthrax vaccines intended for animals should not be used in humans.
The anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program in the U.S. Army Surgeon General's Office can be reached at (877) GET-VACC (1-877-438-8222).
Note: Pregnant women should be vaccinated only if absolutely necessary.